Jared Diamond has clearly had a more interesting life than most of us, and spent significant amounts of time in a wide variety of different kinds of society, all over the world. He says he got the basic idea from a conversation he had back in the 70s with a friend in New Guinea. His friend, who later became a leader in the independence movement, wanted to talk about "cargo" manufactured goods, technology. First, we have unusually many easily domesticable plant and animal species.
The earliest humanoid species, such as Homo habilis and then Homo erectus, emerged about seven million years ago in Africa. One million years ago, Homo erectus began to migrate, out of Africa and around the world—to Europe, Australia, Asia, etc.
It is usually argued that humans—that is, Homo sapiens—first emerged from the evolutionary tree half a million years ago, having evolved independently from Homo erectus around the world.
Nevertheless, scientists and anthropologists generally agree that Homo sapiens are distinguished from some of their ancestors by their larger skulls and their ability to make fire. First, notice that there is no precise way to measure when Homo sapiens first emerged from the evolutionary tree—as is often the case in the book, scientists have to approximate and make educated guesses.
Second, notice that Homo sapiens, the species to which modern human beings belong, are distinguished by their ability to make fire—in a sense, their ability to interact with their environments and make use of available resources.
They could have arisen simultaneously in many different parts of the world, or spread from one part to other parts. But in either case, the Great Leap was crucial to human history. Echoing the themes of the previous passage, human history is presented as a record of how human beings have shaped their environments and used certain resources to make useful tools.
In New Guinea, there is archaeological evidence that humans exterminated many animals soon after arriving. Other scientists argue that many species in New Guinea went extinct because of unrelated changes in the environment, such as drought.
Nevertheless, the possibility that early human beings wiped out entire animal populations arguably anticipates the way that later societies wiped out populations in the regions they colonized, suggesting that aggression is a fundamental part of human nature.
Active Themes By 40, B. Hunter-gatherer cultures entered the Americas through Asia, probably across the Bering land bridge, and quickly migrated south to Patagonia.
There is a lot of disagreement over which peoples were the first to come through America. Some scientists think that a people called the Clovis came through America about 15, years ago and exterminated many of the large animals in the region much like what may have happened in New Guinea.
Evidence of Clovis settlements have been found in the western United States, and farther south, but there is also evidence of earlier settlements from other peoples. Also, notice that the Clovis may have wiped out most of the large mammals in the Americas—echoing the possible exterminations of large animals in New Guinea.
The possibility that the earliest humans around the world massacred animals and other humans suggests that humans have always drastically altered their environments, often in destructive ways.
Humans settled many different parts of the world after the Great Leap. This all leads to the question: And even today, there is more genetic diversity in Africa than anywhere else on the planet, reflecting the large numbers of protohumans in Africa millions of years ago.
And yet, 11, years ago, one could have made different, fairly convincing arguments that each colonized continent was going to become the dominant one. Africa had the most people and the most genetic diversity. But people in Australia had already developed sophisticated boats and other technologies, beyond what people in Africa had built.
In Eurasia, there was more geographic diversity than anywhere else on the planet, suggesting that people who lived in Eurasia would adapt to many different environments and therefore colonize many different parts of the world.
There are too many different explanations of why certain regions of the world flourish and why others do not. No single one of these explanations, at least as offered in this section, is entirely convincing. For example, European pseudo-scientists might argue—and have argued—that their people are superior because they had to respond to the cold climate.
Active Themes In short, Diamond says, you could have made an argument that any region of the globe where there were humans 11, years ago was going to become the most powerful and dominant one. Diamond will go on to discuss why the Eurasian region went on to become the most powerful.
Diamond aims to offer a thorough, comprehensive explanation of why humans from certain parts of the world became the most dominant. In doing so, he hopes to eliminate all bias—historical, racial, and otherwise. Up to the Starting Line.
Retrieved September 14, Guns, Germs, and Steel is, as mentioned above, Jared Diamond’s attempt to answer the question of why some societies were able to conquer their neighbours and spread across the globe, instead of being conquered while their neighbours did the spreading/5(9).
As a result, when the scattered branches of the human species were reunited by trans-oceanic voyages and mercantile capitalism after , Old World invaders had a decisive advantage over their New World cousins - the development of guns, germs and steel ensured that Europeans settled the Americas, Oceania and Southern Africa, eliminating or subduing local populations unable to resist them.
In , ten years after calling agriculture The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race, Jared Diamond came out with Guns, Germs, and yunusemremert.com’s become a landmark, best-seller book that would win the Pulitzer Prize and .
Book Review: Jared Diamond – Guns, Germs, and Steel This Review in Anatoly Karlin about History, and tagged Anthropology, Big History, Zoology, was written by Anatoly Karlin on December 3, AP World History July 30, Guns, Germs, and Steel Book Review Jared Diamond’s widely acclaimed book, Guns, Germs, and Steel, “attempts to provide a short .
In the next few chapters, he contends that the rise of statehood, and the consequent, self-catalysing technological expansion (producing steel and guns, amongst others) and evolution of germs, was linked to the shift of food-production away from hunter-gathering, which first happened in Eurasia.